IS YOUR UNCLE A SERIAL KILLER?
Police scour DNA databanks for the kin of unidentified suspects
For Police Issues by Julius (Jay) Wachtel. When a Sacramento-based task force recently arrested the long-sought “Golden State Killer” it wasn’t the first time that “familial” DNA has been used to find a mass murderer. “The Killers of L.A.” discussed the case of Lonnie Franklin, “The Grim Sleeper,” who was convicted in 2016 of committing ten murders and one attempt between 1985 and 2007. Franklin was tracked down with the help of California’s Familial DNA Search Program. Established in 2008, it offers an opportunity, when crime scene DNA does not match an existing profile in the state databank, to identify possible family members of an as-yet unidentified suspect.
More about that shortly. First, let’s briefly review how crime scene DNA matching works. (For a more complete account, click here.) DNA, our chemical template, resides in 23 pairs of chromosomes we inherit from our parents. Twenty-two pairs are “autosomal,” meaning gender-independent, and one pair is the sex chromosome (females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y.) DNA has four “bases,” Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine that connect in tandem. Some locations always have the same sequence. For example, in chromosome 5, at the location (“locus”) known as CSF1PO, the four unit base sequence A-G-A-T is always present.
Population studies have identified autosomal DNA loci where certain base sequences called “short tandem repeats” (STR’s) repetitively appear. For example, at locus CSF1PO, A-G-A-T repeats from six to sixteen times. To determine whether DNA found at a crime scene matches that taken from a “known” person, forensic scientists focus on thirteen loci where a certain STR string is always present. When the number of repeats inherited from each parent is identical for corresponding STR’s at all thirteen loci (columns on left), examiners can testify that the probability is overwhelming that the DNA originated from the same person or an identical twin. But if there are any differences (columns on right) sorry – wrong person!
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That’s when a “familial” approach can help. Although the Grim Sleeper’s DNA profile was not in the California databank, an inquiry in 2010, after the state began familial searches, revealed that it resembled that of a recently convicted felon. In addition, the male (Y) chromosomes closely matched, suggesting a father/son relationship. Officers learned that the convict’s father, Lonnie Franklin, lived in the area and had a long rap sheet. They then shadowed him until he discarded some pizza.
Bingo! DNA from the crust matched DNA from the crime scenes. (For a paper about the matching process and its use in various cases, including the Grim Sleeper investigation, click here.)
Every state collects DNA profiles of persons arrested or convicted of certain crimes. Federal, state and local authorities also contribute DNA profiles to the FBI’s National DNA Index System (NDIS). Of course, these databases only cover a thin slice of the population. That’s what stymied investigators pursuing California’s notorious “Golden State Killer.” Crime scene DNA tied a single individual to twelve murders, forty-five rapes and over 120 residential burglaries between 1976 and 1986, but a familial search of official DNA repositories yielded nothing worthwhile. (Click here, here and here for detailed accounts about the investigation in the Los Angeles Times.)
Frustrated cops broadened their quest to include consumer genealogical databases. Those such as 23andMe and AncestryDNA require that users submit a vial of saliva and pay a fee. Cops lacked the killer’s spit. So they turned to GEDmatch. Unlike the others, it accepts user-uploaded DNA profiles. To build family trees GEDmatch capitalizes on the fact that differences between human DNA are mostly in single base pairs at certain loci. In its hunt for relatives its software counts how many of these pairs, known as SNP’s, match between samples. The more that do, the closer the relation. (For a thorough discussion click here.)
GEDmatch and other sites deny they knowingly helped police. So it was left to authorities to impersonate the Golden State Killer and supply crime scene DNA in the required format. This process generated a family tree of about 1,000 persons whose familial relationships traced back to the 1800s. Criteria such as physical characteristics and places of residence gradually whittled the list down. Four months later police identified a possible suspect, Joseph James DeAngelo, 72. Officers followed him and gathered discarded DNA.
Bingo! A perfect STR match.
Familial DNA is nothing new. Its place of origin, the U.K., has used it in violent crime investigations since 2002 with considerable success. An early application in the U.S. was in the case of Dennis Rader, the notorious “BTK Killer.” In 2005, after a decades-long investigation suggested he was the one, analysts found a close match between crime scene DNA and the DNA of his daughter, who had been hospitalized for a medical procedure. Investigators collared Rader. He promptly confessed.
Thanks to lots of shoe leather, though, Rader was already a suspect. A recent example of a blind hit is the case of Gilbert Chavarria, the “San Diego Creeper,” who forced his way into a string of homes and sexually assaulted children. After a couple of frustrating years police finally identified him through a familial search of the California databse, which identified a close relative. Chavarria was convicted in January. (For more success stories click here.)
In 2007 Colorado became the first state to allow familial searching of its state DNA databank. Since then the practice has spread to eleven additional states: Arizona, California, Florida, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming. That still leaves a lot of holdouts. Why? One reason is that familial searching provokes considerable angst among civil libertarians, who object because it disproportionately affects members of minority groups, who are overrepresented in arrests and convictions. Indeed, that’s reportedly why Maryland and the District of Columbia legally ban the practice altogether. And it’s why the Legal Aid Society of New York has sued to block its use:
This is dangerous. It’s an end-run around the legislative branch. Clearly there’s a racial bias to who is policed. Innocent people, largely poor and in communities of color, will now become a suspect group of folks.
There are other concerns. In 2014 familial DNA led Idaho police to accuse a filmmaker of a 1996 murder. Michael Usry was targeted through his father’s DNA, which authorities had obtained from a genealogical website with a court order. Although Usry was ultimately cleared – the match was very close, but not perfect – the experience put him and his family through a miserable time.
Familial searching is intrusive. It can also prove very expensive. A Federally-sponsored study revealed that state laboratories that perform familial searches usually restrict them to crimes of violence. While these labs also conveyed worries about civil liberties, legal issues and the accuracy of findings, the one universally-cited concern was cost. This might be the principal reason why several states that use familial searching have rules strictly limiting its use. For example, California restricts familial searching of its database to crimes with “critical public safety implications” where an agency “has pursued all other reasonable and viable investigative leads, including DNA profile comparison(s) to suspect reference samples, with negative results.”
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Even when state labs are willing, localities may not be up to the task. Familial searches yield an inherently ambiguous forensic work-product that requires extensive follow-up investigation. That responsibility often falls on local agencies that may lack the resources to assemble and scour family trees across multiple jurisdictions.
Still, when Grim Sleepers, Golden State Killers and their ilk get caught, it’s time to celebrate. On April 10, following a multi-year investigation, Scottsdale (AZ) police arrested Ian L. Mitcham for the grisly murder of Allison Feldman. The breakthrough came when familial DNA provided a “near match” to a prison inmate. Mitcham was his brother. While acknowledging that the technique has privacy implications, the victim’s father is planning a roadshow to encourage non-familial states to give it a go. “It’s for Allison. I hope it provides some relief to other families, like it has done to us.”
9/18/23 “BTK” killer Dennis Rader is now 78, doing ten consecutive terms of life-without-parole in a Kansas prison. His daughter Kerri Rawson, whom he helped raise during his decades-long murderous spree, has been visiting him in prison to help police identify more of her father’s victims. After all, she had (unwittingly) helped in his capture. Nearly two decades ago, when Rader was only a suspect, her DNA, obtained through a hospital, was used to match him to the killings.
7/27/23 Police searching the home of Long Island, NY architect Rex A. Heuermann, who has been charged with murdering three women, found 279 firearms in his residence. Among them were 92 handguns for which he had permits. Heuermann’s victims are among the eleven sex workers whose bodies were recovered from area beach-side communities more than a decade ago.
7/17/23 DNA found on “pizza crust, bottles and human hairs” and cell-site information placing him at critical locations led to the arrest of a New York City architect for the sex-related murders of three women between 2009-2010. Rex Heuermann, 59, has also been linked to the murder of a fourth woman, and may be connected to a string of unsolved murders (Long Island’s “Gilgo Beach” killings) that, in all, took the lives of eight women, a man and a two-year old girl during a two-decade period.
3/13/23 In 1970 police searching through the woods found the body of Maryland high-school student Pamela Conyers, who had gone missing after a trip to a mall. Her killer’s identity was a mystery. It so remained for fifty-two years, until detectives used a public genealogical database to connect a Virginia family to DNA recovered from the scene. From there they identified its source. Forrest Clyde Williams III was 21 when he murdered the teen. Williams, who had a “minor” criminal record, died in 2018.
3/6/23 Harold Carpenter’s DNA was collected when he was accused of a 1994 sexual assault in Washington state. But no charges were filed, and his DNA was never tested. And there it sat until this year, when a grant let the state process untested DNA and submit profiles to the FBI’s CODIS database. And that’s how it was matched to DNA recovered from the exhumed cadaver of Patricia Carnahan, who was was murdered in California in 1979. In 2020 a familial search ad gotten California authorities as close as Carpenter’s uncle. Harold Carpenter, now 63, has been arrested and awaits trial.
12/31/22 Genealogical DNA is credited for leading authorities to the alleged killer of four University of Idaho students, who were stabbed to death in November as they slept in an off-campus apartment. Bryan Christopher Kohberger, 28, a criminology graduate student at nearby Washington State University, was arrested in Pennsylvania and will be returned to Idaho to face charges. He also had a white Hyundai, same as the vehicle allegedly used by the killer. A motive remains unknown.
11/12/22 In 2003 three knife-armed intruders burst into the residence of a Maryland family and badly wounded the husband. Mistaking the car mechanic as the owner of a gas station, they rifled through the home looking for money, using socks they found to avoid leaving fingerprints. Seventeen years later a detective matched the DNA from inside one of the socks against the DNA database profile of Stacy Howard Moore, a local man who served five years for a similar 1994 robbery but had supposedly gone straight. Moore recently pled guilty and was sentenced to 18 years imprisonment.
8/11/22 A Sunnyvale, Calif. teen was raped and stabbed to death in 1982. Over the years, new DNA techniques led authorities to establish her assailant's DNA profile. But no matches were found in official databanks. In 2021 a tip led detectives to focus on male members of a certain family. DNA contributed by his daughter (apparently, to a public databank) led to the arrest of Hawaii resident Gary Ramirez, 75.
7/27/22 Genealogical DNA testing recently tracked down the killer of two Southern California women who were sexually assaulted and murdered in the late 1980’s. According to the Orange County D.A. and Garden Grove police, their killer was a local resident, Reuben J. Smith. Shortly following these murders he was charged with sexual assault in Las Vegas and committed suicide.
6/11/22 In 1966 Idaho Falls man Christopher Tapp, 20, was twenty when a friend, Brian Dripps Sr., raped and murdered an 18-year old woman. But police came to suspect Tapp because he was friendly with a man who committed another rape. During a long series of interrogations, police persuaded Tapp to slowly involve himself in the crime, and ultimately to confess. He spent 21 years in prison until DNA and its genetic trail led to Dripps. He confessed, and Tapp was exonerated. He will receive $11.7 million.
4/12/22 Othram is a private laboratory that extracts and sequences crime-scene DNA and uses consumer databases to track down possible matches. And it accepts donations. In one example, $45,000 contributed by the friends of two Las Vegas teens and a third victim killed in decades-old Las Vegas rape-murders led to the crimes’ solutions.
1/17/22 In September 2021, thirty-seven years after Alaska troopers unearthed the corpse of one of notorious serial killer Robert Hansen’s many victims, “Horseshoe Harriet’s” true identity was revealed. After inputting her DNA profile into a “public access genealogy database” (which one wasn’t said) a family tree was built, and DNA furnished by a “very close relative” confirmed that the murdered woman was Colorado native Robin Pelkey, who was nineteen and living in Anchorage when she disappeared.
12/25/20 Developments in “probabilistic genotyping,” which uses software-driven algorithms to estimate a mathematical likelihood that DNA profiles match, are helping analysts deal with complex mixtures. However, not every profile has enough data, and some samples still prove too complex.
12/8/20 Authorities identified Joseph De Angelo by uploading his profile to the MyHeritage consumer DNA database, which produced a match to a close relative. But MyHeritage, whose “terms of service” cautioned that it responded to “official inquiries,” wasn’t informed that police were behind the search.
6/29/20 “Golden State Killer” Joseph De Angelo pled guilty to thirteen murders and a host of other crimes before a Sacramento, Calif. Superior Court judge. Court was being held at the local Cal State campus, the same place where De Angelo earned a criminal justice degree in 1972. (He was fired from a police job seven years later for shoplifting.) De Angelo will be sentenced to life without parole.
5/7/20 Last year the FBI’s national database matched DNA evidence from a 1991 Tennessee murder to DNA from two 1992 killings in Wyoming. “Commercial genealogy databases” were then used to identify a potential suspect, Iowa man Clark Perry Baldwin, a long-haul truck driver. Collected through surveillance, his DNA proved a perfect match. Baldwin was arrested for the three killings and is being looked at in others.
3/30/20 “Grim Sleeper” Lonnie Franklin, one of the first serial killers identified through familial DNA, died of apparently natural causes while awaiting execution. He had been on death row since his 2016 conviction for committing ten murders in South Los Angeles between 1985 and 2007.
7/5/19 In 2000, only three days before the statute of limitations expired on three rapes with matching DNA committed between 1992-1994, California issued a “John Doe” warrant accusing the “John Doe” perpetrator of the crimes. A genealogy website recently helped track down a suspect, Mark Manteuffel, 59, and surveillance agents recovered matching DNA. He awaits trial.
7/5/19 Now 56, William Talbott II never joined a genealogy website. But he had two second cousins who did. Genealogists helping investigate the 1987 murder of a Washington state couple built a family tree, and detectives used his place of residence to hone in on Talbott, a distant relative. Last month, thanks to a cheek swab that positively matched Talbott to crime scene DNA, jurors returned a guilty verdict. It’s supposedly the first time DNA from a genealogy site has been tested at trial.
3/19/19 In 1999 Alabama police found two high school friends shot dead in the trunk of a car. Several days ago police arrested Coley McCraney, 45, for their murder. Crime scene DNA uploaded to GEDmatch yielded a familial hit, and investigation led to McCraney, a relative. His DNA proved a perfect match.
3/12/19 Nearly four decades after a passer-by discovered the body of a baby in a ditch, police arrested Theresa Bentaas, 57, for murder in the long-unresolved case. Bentaas was tracked down by a familial search that revealed the child’s relatives still lived in Sioux Falls. Police focused on Bentaas as a potential mother (she was nineteen at the time of the death), and DNA gathered from her discards made a positive hit. Bentaas confessed.
2/10/19 Newport Beach (CA) police arrested James Neal, 76, after a familial search of FamilyTreeDNA.com, a consumer DNA, linked him to DNA recovered from the scene of the July, 1973 murder of an 11-year old girl. A positive match was apparently made after Neal was placed under surveillance in Colorado.
2/18/19 Minneapolis police arrested Jerry Westrom, 52, for the 1993 murder of a prostitute a quarter-century ago. DNA from a consumer database identified him as a suspect (he used to live in the area and was recently convicted for soliciting prostitution), and DNA from a napkin he threw away while under watch was consistent with crime scene DNA. His DNA was a positive match.
1/26/19 More than a decade after a fatal sword-slaying, police in California arrested Zachary Bunney, 39. Crime scene DNA entered into a consumer database yielded an imperfect match, signifying a distant relative. Officers built a family tree, and after a lot of work they settled on Bunney as a logical suspect. A direct comparison with his DNA (obtained with a warrant) yielded a perfect match.
10/15/18 According to an article in Science consumer DNA databases such as GEDMatch presently enable a “third cousin or closer match” for sixty percent of those with European ancestry. When combined with demographic identification, all such persons in America will soon be within reach.
8/24/18 Fayetteville (NC) police arrested Darold Bowden, 43, for a series of rapes committed between 2006-2008. He was identified through a familial match by a Virginia firm, Parabon, that offers forensic DNA services using GED Match.
8/23/18 In an unprecedented move, six California counties joined forces to try alleged “Golden State Killer” DeAngelo for thirteen murders plus numerous other crimes in a single, consolidated trial. Its purpose is to benefit survivors who might not otherwise get closure in his or their lifetimes.
8/13/18 “Golden State Killer” DeAngelo has been charged in the 1975 murder of a Tulare Co. (Calif.) man who interrupted his attempt to kidnap the man’s daughter. While that incident didn’t yield DNA, authorities matched bullets from the crime to a gun DeAngelo stole from another home.
5/21/18 Police in Washington state uploaded DNA from the 1987 murder of a Canadian couple to GEDmatch, yielding a partial hit. A genealogist then identified a second cousin who once lived near the crime scene. Surveillance of the suspect led to the collection of DNA that was a perfect match.
5/8/18 Visalia (Calif.) police believe that the Golden State Killer was likely the violent “Ransacker” of the mid-70s who terrorized their town. Meanwhile officers in Northern California hope to match the Golden State Killer’s DNA to that of the notorious “Zodiac Killer” of the 60s.
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NIJ papers on familial DNA policies and practices
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